1) to avoid lung cancer
2) to avoid heart attack and stroke
3) to avoid high blood pressure
4) to avoid Raynaud's and or Buerger's disease
5) to avoid chronic kidney disease
6) to avoid COPD
7) to avoid esophageal cancer
8) to avoid cancer of the mouth
9) to avoid peripheral artery disease
10) to avoid thomboangiitis obliterans
11) to avoid vascular disorders
12) to avoid complications of diabetes [for those who have diabetes, not all people do]
13) to not exacerbate the risk of breast cancer
To understand how and why I arrived at those conclusions, I am including here the information I based my professional opinion on.
The known cancer producing substances [carcinogens] are:
1) radiation; some secondary cancers occur because a primary cancer was over-radiated
2) chemicals including nicotine of tobacco :
Nicotine is the most known cause of cancer .
a) Hepatitis B and C
b) HPV [human papilloma virus]
c) helicobacter pylori [H.pylori]:
H. pylori is the only bacteria classified by the World Health organization as a class I carcinogen. [pg 629].
4) other physical agents
I. Smoking causes lung cancer:
A. Facts about lung cancer :
Most lethal of all cancers worldwide.
Leading cause of death in U.S.with 1.2 million deaths annually.
Small cell carcinoma also called "oat cell carcinoma" begins in larger airways and becomes sizable. The "oat" cell "contains dense neurosecretory granules that often cause endocrine/paraneoplastic syndrome." [pg 1611].
Cigarette smoking is by far the leading risk factor for lung cancer.
People who smoke are ten times more likely to develop lung cancer than people who do not smoke.
90% of men who develop lung cancer do smoke or did smoke.
80% of women who develop lung cancer do smoke or did smoke.
The likelihood of developing lung cancer increases as the duration of smoking and the number for cigarettes smoked per day increases.
Second-hand smoke is classified by the EPA as a group A carcinogen because it contains more than 60 cancer-causing compounds.
There are no safe levels of being exposed to second-hand smoke.
Second-hand smoke has been the cause of 3000 lung cancer deaths annually in US.
Though marijuana is not tobacco it also increases the risk of lung cancer because of the high levels of tar and the fact that smokers inhale longer and deeper.
B. Warning signs of lung cancer:
any change in respirations
blood-streaked sputum [what is coughed up]
frank hemoptysis [coughing up bright blood]
rust colored or purulent [with pus] sputum
chest, shoulder, back and arm pain
recurring episodes of pneumonia; pleural effusion [fluid in pleural sac] and or bronchitis
unexplained dyspnea , fever, or weight loss
C. Carcinogenesis : transform normal healthy cells into cancer cells. [pg 255]
Stages of that are:
1) initiation: carcinogen damages the human's DNA
2) promotion: occurs when additional assaults/ exposures to carcinogens occurs causing more damage to DNA
3) malignant conversion: occurs when the lymphatic system and the blood vessels spread the cancer cells to the lungs, liver, bones and brain.
4) progression: cells become increasingly malignant as the DNA morphs into malignant cells that are spread to all parts of body by lymphatic system and blood vessels.
II. Smoking causes heart disease.
Nicotine causes blood vessels to clamp down which reduces the amount of blood flowing through them and causes the heart to have to work harder to pump blood to all parts of the body. Over time, the heart decompensates and heart damage occurs.
Nicotine also causes high blood pressure for same reason. If you have ever put your finger over the end of a garden hose while the water was on full force, you will understand perfectly why this is so.
High blood pressure untreated by removing cause of vasoconstriction, over time causes much damage to heart.
Cigarette smokers are 3 to 4 times more likely to develop coronary vascular disease than non-smokers.
Cigarette smoking doubles the risk of stroke.
Smokers are ten times more likely to develop peripheral vascular disease than non-smokers.
III. Raynaud's syndrome and Buerger's disease are diseases of the blood vessels of the extremities. The small blood vessels and arterioles constrict [clamp down] in response to stimuli of nicotine and tar of tobacco.
IV. Chronic kidney disease [CKD] is instigated or caused by smoking.
"Mechanisms of the effect of smoking on kidney disease progression are unclear but studies have shown an association between smoking and decreased renal function. " [pg 798]. But actually it is the same exact reason as how smoking affects the heart. If the kidneys do not get a sufficient amount of blood and oxygen they will be damaged. If the blood vessels to the kidneys are constricted by nicotine, the blood flow to the kidneys is less and the kidneys are damaged over time.
Smoking increases the risk of complications from diabetes and it increases the microalbuminuria that furthers the progression of diabetic nephropathy.
Smoking was related to the development of kidney disease in a longitudinal study of 2585 people who had no history of previous kidney disease. [pg 798]
V. COPD, which is standard abbreviation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
"Smoking is the primary risk factor for COPD." [pg 1578]
Numerous irritants in smoke stimulates excessive mucus production, coughing, and destroys ciliary functions [those tiny hair-like projections that move secretions along] and causes inflammation [redness, tenderness, soreness] to the bronchiolar and alveolar walls.
VI. Esophageal cancer:
"Major risk factor is cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. " [pg 615]
HPV was found in 70 % of patients with squamous cell carcinoma [pg 615].
VII. Breast cancer
Smoking damages DNA of anybody who smokes over time. For women who have no children or who have their first child after the age of thirty, the risk of breast cancer is greater. Also when those same women smoke the risk is even higher because the lungs are in close proximity to the breasts and are located behind the breasts and within the same chest wall that supports the breasts. The mammary glands and arteries will easily transport any cancer cells from the breast to the lungs. The breast's blood supply are the internal thoracic artery, lateral thoracic artery and posterior intercostal arteries. These vessels form an extensive network. Arteries take blood from the heart to the rest of the body and veins return the blood after the oxygen is removed from it, back to the heart. In addition, the breasts have direct communication with the lymph nodes under the arms. The pectoral [anterior] lymph nodes, the subscapular [posterior] lymph nodes, the supraclavicular nodes , the infraclavicular nodes all drain lymph from the breasts into the central axillary nodes under the arm. [pg 843].
I am convinced that abortion is a direct cause of breast cancer because during pregnancy , the hormones estrogen, progesterone, and pituitary all increase to produce a living baby. They increase the vascular [blood]supply to the breast also and enlarge the lymphatic vessels and ducts. When pregnancy ends, prolactin initiates laceration [the production of breast milk to nourish newborn]. Prolactin and corticotropin help maintain lactation. The letting down sensation of milk flowing is the mother's physical response in her breasts to the baby's cry for food, and the mechanical act of the baby sucking. The baby's sucking releases the pituitary hormone oxytocin into the bloodstream, which causes the mammary acini to contract and release milk into the duct system for the baby. Abortion interrupts the body's buildup of hormones and the resultant changes in the body that take place as the body prepares to nurture and develop a human baby. The human breasts' parenchyma consists of ductular, lobular, and acinar epithelial structures.
So to avoid an entire set of health problems caused by smoking and or use of tobacco, do not smoke! Do not use tobacco in any form! I began this with my conclusions summarized to make it easy for any reader to quickly grasp the problems that tobacco causes.
Because of all of the ramifications of smoking, the World health organization opposes smoking. In today's news is this info that was tweeted to me that I am quoting this section:
"1 FEBRUARY 2016 | GENEVA - WHO is calling on governments to rate movies that portray tobacco use in a bid to prevent children and adolescents from starting to smoke cigarettes and use other forms of tobacco."....“Smoking in films can be a strong form of promotion for tobacco products,” adds Dr Bettcher. “The 180 Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) are obliged by international law to ban tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship.”...In 2014, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimated that in the United States alone, exposure to on-screen smoking would recruit more than 6 million new, young smokers from among American children in 2014, of which 2 million would ultimately die from tobacco-induced diseases.In 2014, smoking was found in 44% of all Hollywood films, and 36% of films rated for young people. Almost two thirds (59%) of top-grossing films featured tobacco imagery between 2002 and 2014.
“With ever tighter restrictions on tobacco advertising, film remains one of the last channels exposing millions of adolescents to smoking imagery without restrictions.”....Surveys have shown that tobacco imagery was found in top-grossing films produced in six European countries (Germany, Iceland, Italy, Poland, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom), and two Latin American countries (Argentina and Mexico). Nine in 10 movies from Iceland and Argentina contain smoking, including films rated for young people, the report states.
The WHO Smoke-Free Movie report, in line with the guidelines of article 13 of the WHO FCTC, recommends policy measures including:
requiring age classification ratings for films with tobacco imagery to reduce overall exposure of youth to tobacco imagery in films;
certifying in movie credits that film producers receive nothing of value from anyone in exchange for using or displaying tobacco products in a film;
ending display of tobacco brands in films; and
requiring strong anti-smoking advertisements to be shown before films containing tobacco imagery in all distribution channels (cinemas, televisions, online, etc).
In addition, the report also recommends making media productions that promote smoking ineligible for public subsidies.
Quotes of Dr Douglas Bettcher, WHO’s Director for the Department of Prevention of Noncommunicable Diseases
For more information, contact:
Telephone: +41 22 7911578
Mobile: +41-79 603 72 94
Telephone: +41 22 791 50 99
Mobile: +41 79 367 62 14
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org" [end quotes]
For full article : http://who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2016/protect-children-from-tobacco/en/ and the & Tobacco free initiative: http://who.int/tobacco/en/
To oppose smoking and tobacco use please tweet using hashtag #NoTobacco .
I referred to a set of textbooks that I own : Medical-Surgical Nursing, Clinical management for positive outcomes, eighth edition written by Joyce M Black and Jane Hokanson Hawks, and I put in brackets [ ] the specific page when I quoted those books, or added info I did not know before reviewing for writing this.
This is my 2016 logo for the time being. I signed it in paint and painted in that little brush. Copyrighted.
My copyright notice I made for this blog and all content on it. Read statement below.
This is one of my Christian crosses to remind all that I am raised Southern Baptist and am believer in THE LIVING LORD JESUS.That is my hand in that photo that I photographed in recent months this year. To read what I believe please read https://salvation-is-free.blogspot.com.
This is the display I made of the University of Georgia's Terry College of Business where I got a second education and graduated with a business degree.
This is my selfie [Gloria Poole,RN, artist] in spring 2014 but I look the same except that I am thinner and my hair is longer but I still put it in lop-sided pony tail when I walk about or create art to prevent hair from blowing into my eyes or into paint.That is also me that you see in the "about me" box on right side of this blog and I am wearing a dark grey winter wool hat because that photo was taken of me in state of Georgia in Jan 2010 and my family in Georgia saw me wearing that hat and so did other people. So I am leaving that photo also on this blog for that reason.
This is one of my photos of the U S flag I photographed on walkabout to remind all I am a U S citizen with all civil liberties including freedom of Press, freedom to worship THE LORD GOD, and freedom to associate with whomever I want or not to associate with those GOD labels "abomination" and freedom to protest governments.
Copyright notice:I, Gloria Poole, own all rights to all content on this blog. Usually I sign the art I create as simply Gloria since that is my first name, that I was born with; but on pencil and or ink drawings I sometimes also sign my born with surname of Poole which is my legal name again because I removed the Pappas name from my name at time of final divorce decree in Oct 2007 from male DBP, and I resumed my full maiden name, INCLUDING MY BORN WITH SURNAME OF POOLE by Court order at the same time. I am also known on the web and in real life as Gloria; Gloria Poole; Gloria J Poole; Gloria Poole, RN, artist; and on the web as : gloriapoole; gloria-poole; gloria.poole; Ms Gloria Poole; gloriapoole.RN; gloriapoole_RN; gloriapooleRN at yahoo; gloria0817; gpoole817; artist-gloriapoole; gloriapoole-paintings; artist-gloria; Poole,Gloria; gloriapoole1749; and other variations of my real, born with, and legal name of Gloria Poole. For the record, I am a white, single-again, twice divorced, Southern Baptist, born again, Christian, woman and the mother of only two children who are grown daughters who are named Jennifer and Leigh. I am also a prolife activist, blogger, artist in all mediums; photographer for my own purposes, Registered Nurse with a license in Missouri but before that for most of my life in the state of Georgia, U.S. citizen born in the state of Georgia; University of Georgia alum, Georgia Baptist College of Nursing alum, writer, illustrator, author, personhood promoter. This blog may not be downloaded, nor copied individually or collectively as a whole; nor have domains forwarded to it that do not belong to me, nor may the photos or art on it be reproduced or saved to disk by anyone .
I create all content on this blog and I, Gloria Poole, own all rights to this blog collectively and individually as single posts. All telephones listed on this account and any account of mine on the web belong to me personally and are in my apartment in Missouri or in my possession at all times. Some of my numbers are wired, landline telephones and some are mobile phones. I have other telephones and numbers that are not listed on this blog for my safety sake. This blog and all blogs that I create and that contain my words I wrote and or art I made and signed and or photos that I photographed belong exclusively to me Gloria Poole, of Missouri and Georgia. Copyright. Gloria Poole / Gloria / gloriapoole /gloria-poole /gloria.poole/ Ms Gloria Poole/ Poole Gloria / G-L-O-R-I-A / gloriapoole1749 /gloria0817 /gpoole817 / gloriapooleRN at yahoo / gloriapoole.RN / artist-gloriapoole /Gloria Poole,RN,artist /cartooning-by-gloriapoole / photo-by-gloriapoole, and other variations of my real name with or without my professional status as Registered Nurse and with or without numbers after my name, at my own private apt in Missouri which is not shared with anyone and neither is my equipment nor phones shared with anyone, and neither is my isp account shared with anyone which means no one is authorized to log into any account of mine anywhere but me. /signed/ Gloria Poole, RN, artist; at my apt in Missouri on 1st Feb 2016 at 3:09pm.
Gloria Poole / Gloria / gloriapoole / [Ms ] Gloria Poole,RN,artist of / gloria Poole,RN, artist of/in Missouri, USA .