Tuesday, August 2, 2016

Bacterial infections discussed by me Gloria Poole, RN, artist of/in Missouri, USA.

Bacterial infections discussed briefly by Registered Nurse Gloria Poole of Missouri using medical reference books.

Bacterial infections are caused by bacteria which are the simplest organisms found in the most natural environments. They are spherical or rod-shaped cells commonly several micrometers in length. They often possess a tough protective coat called cell wall, beneath which a plasma membrane encloses a single cytoplasm compartment containing DNA, RNA, proteins and small molecules. They are small and replicate quickly by binary fission. Under optimal conditions a single procaryotic cell can divide every twenty minutes and thereby produce five billion cells in less than eleven hours. To adequately completely discuss all bacteria and all aspects of them would take 500 pages or more. This is a summary of SOME of the more common bacteria.

Bacteria are of two types: aerobic or anaerobic. Aerobic means they need oxygen to reproduce themselves. Anaerobic means without oxygen, so they can replicate themselves by substituting nitrate for oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor [from medical textbook, Molecular Biology of THE CELL, by B Alberts, D. Bray, J. Lewis, M. Raff, K Roberts and J D Watson, pg 384] .

Bacterial infections pose many risks to hospitals as they have tendency to spread there, and particularly to the Operating room itself [if contaminated] and the O.R. staff, so any bacterial infection needs to be treated before a patent is operated on if time permits. In an acute emergency to save a life, surgeons will start an IV drip of a powerful antibiotic and proceed. In that case, the entire O.R. has to be on alert to quarantine the infection to one room and disinfect it and the people in the room adequately. Of course, once the incision is made, the room is considered contaminated and must be disinfected before any more cases put there. So for health care providers, it is imperative that bacterial infections be boldly and clearly labeled at the front of the medical record if there is any chance the patient will go to O.R. or have an I & D [incision of infection with a drain put in] in the E.R.


I am going to briefly discuss the more common bacteria so people who do not have medical or nursing or scientific backgrounds have an basic knowledge of bacteria. Bacteria are different from viruses. I discussed viruses in the previous lesson so scroll back to refer to that if need be.

Diseases in humans caused by bacteria:

I. Pneumococcol pneumonia is an acute bacterial infection of the lungs caused by pneumoccus and characterized by abrupt onset with chills, fever, chest pain, cough and bloody sputum. [Reference The Textbook of Medicine by Cecil & Loeb, pg 113]. More than 95% of all pneumonias are caused by pneumococci. It is a lancet-shaped gram-positive bacteria. It can be cultured on a wide variety of mediums. Those who have it often present for the first time so seriously ill that the medical history must be obtained from family or friends. Temperature can range from 103 degrees to 106 degrees. Leukocytes are elevated and shift to the left in the differential count, Penicillin is the drug of choice if patient is very sick, with IM injections 2 - 4 times/ 24 hours. Tetracyclines and Chloramphenicols are drugs of choice if allergic to Penicillin. [pg 127 Textbook of Medicine]

II. Streptococcol infections

Streptococci cause disease of the respiratory tract in humans. the most simple classification and the most useful for clinical purposes is whether or not they cause hemolysis. Streptococci can be found normally in the respiratory tract of newborns for a few hours after birth and also in the feces of humans. The most important because of the results they produce are those that cause beta hemolysis on a blood agar plate. Those streptococci that cause alpha hemolysis produce a green ring around the central colony. Beta hemolytic strep produce a clear zone around the central colony. Those in Group A cause the most damage to humans. There are also Group B, , C, D, E, F, G, H, K, L, M and N which all cause different diseases.

The diseases caused by streptococci are:

1. Acute tonsillitis and pharyngitis

2. Hemolytic streptococcol sore throat

3. Scarlet fever

4. Erysipelas [infection of skin]

5. Peritonsillitar abscess

6. Rheumatic fever

[heart, blood vessels & joints become infected]

Penicillin is preferred and should be used in every case unless the patient is allergic. Erythromycin if allergic to Penicillin.

III. Staphylococcol Infections:

Staphylococcus are responsible for most suppurative infections of the skin; and often cause infection of the lungs, bones, kidneys and other organs. [pg 160, Textbook of Medicine]
The species are categorized according to the color they produce:

Staph aureus [S Aureus ] is a golden yellow color.

Staph albs [S. Albus] is a white color.

Staph citreus [S. Citreus] is a lemon-yellow color.

Staphylococcus aureus produces toxic substances with hemolytic, necrotizing, leukocytic and LETHAL properties. One the staphs produce food poisoning. Also, they produce an enzyme, hyaluronidase , or "spreading factor" which hydrolyzes hyaluronic acid. Most strains isolated from infections will ferment mannite. They can also grow in human blood. They can also coagulate plasma in blood.

Staphyloccoccus cause :

1. Furnucles ; carbuncles [skin and deeper tissues]

2. Staph pneumonia

3. Osteomyelitis [bone]

4. Staphylococcol bacterermia [in the blood> sepsis]

5. Enterocolitis

The drugs to treat staphylococcol infections are: Penicillin, Erythromycin, Novobiocin, Bacitracin, the Tetracylcines, Chloramphenicol, and Streptomycin.

IV. Gonococcol infections:

Gonococus [Neisseria Gonorrhoeae] focuses on the genital tract. Gonococcus is a gram -negative kidney-shaped diploccous. Penicillin is the drug of choice.

V. Meningococcal infections:

Caused by menigoccus Neisseria intracellular, Diplococcus intracellular meningitis, and is gram-negative that varies in size and can occur singly or in biscuit-shaped diplococcus.

Sulfonamides are the drug of choice to treat.

VI. Bacillary infections:

A. Pertussis [whooping cough]

B. Granuloma Inguinale caused by pleomorphic coccobacillus [Donovania granulomatis] which is transmitted through sex and can become systemic. Tetracycline is drug of choice to treat.

C. Diphtheria caused by Corynebacterium diptheriae], and causes a grey membrane to form. Is gram-positive and when stained resembles Chinese characters. The treatment is anti-toxin, which is a foreign protein to the human body because it is produced in horse serum. The risk of anaphylaxis exists with anti-toxins.

D. Clostridium infections

Are anaerobic, gram-positive spore-bearing bacillus found in soil, garbage and the intestinal tracts of MOST ANIMALS. [Textbook of Medicine, pg 191]

Produce gas gangrene which if not treated causes death.

Many different species are Clostridium perfringens, Cl. novae, Cl. septicum, Cl. histolytic, and Cl. bifermentans [sordelli], which produce powerful endotoxins. The anti-toxin must be specific to each species.

"It may be safely said that every untreated patient with gas gangrene will surely die. " [pg 192, Textbook of Medicine.}

VII. Salmonella infections:

Seven groups of this bacteria categorized by their O antigens. Is gram-negative bacillus. Correct identification is necessary. Exist in rodents, domestic animals [pets] and fowl and frequently in human carriers. Can be transmitted from birds to humans. Because they are had to differentiate requiring specialized equipment, cultures can be sent to the Salmonella Typing Center at Agricultural Experiment Station, Univ of Kentucky; or Salmonella Center at Beth Israel Hospital, NYC, NY.

Diseases caused:

1. Salmonella typhus is acute with headache, apathy, cough, splenomegaly, leukopenia and maculo-papular eruptions.

2. Typhoid fever.

3. Food poisoning.

4. Acute gastroenteritis.

5. Septicemia.

6. Enteric fever

Chloramphenicol is the drug of choice or Tetracycline to treat.

VIII. Coliform, proteus, Pseudomonas Bacilli:

gram-negative aerobic affecting the intestinal tract or gentio-urinary.


A. Coliform:

1. Escherica coli [E. coli]

2. Aerobacter aerogenes [ B. lactis aerogenes]

B. Proteus:
Proteus types:

1. Proteus vulgaris

2. Proteus morgani

C. Pseudomonas:

Pseudomonas :

1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa [B. pyocyaneus]

Must obtain cultures. Penicillin, Streptomycin or Tetracycline to treat.

IX. Klebsiella infections:

gram-negative rods, with more than 77 types identified.

Affects respiratory system with 80% mortality if untreated. Can lead to sepsis. Treated with Streptomycin or Chloramphenicol.

This "lesson" is by no stretch odf imagination a comprehensive discussion nor a complete discussion of all bacteria that causes disease in humans. it would take multiple textbooks to cover this topic well. This is intended to introduce those who have no medical, nursing or biology backgrounds to the fact that bacteria are different from viruses, are treated with antibiotics, can be deadly, and usually require some lab tests ands or cultures to differentiate. However,anyone can read and use this information especially in third world countries where medical references may not be available. I try to simplify the info so anyone could understand it.

Another resource open to the public is provided by Dr C Michael Gibson, MD of Harvard University and he gives permission to use it in an interview on The Doctor Paradox which is on itunes as podcast. That resource is http://wikidocs.org. I am not linking it on purpose because of art I make my blogs are sometimes [often] hacked and I do not want to jeopardize wikidoc in any way. Type that url into your web-browser to access it.

Also, thank you very much to my readers and viewers from around the world. You can see the complete list of countries that view or read various blogs of mine on my https://gloriapoole.blogspot.com. For this particular blog the viewers/ readers of previous post were in : Russia, France, US, Germany and Phillipines.

You can follow me on twitter at these twitter accounts of mine which are each unique: @ProlifeNurse; @personhood1; @gloriapoole; @gloria_poole; @Tartan_Bliss; and @tweetie0817.

Also, you can read more on the #prolife and #personhood causes on these blogs of mine:






https://sites.google.com/site/ArtistIllustrationsMy pencil drawings of early stages of an embryo in womb.





And you can read about JESUS The Messiah on this blog of mine:


Also, you can see art I made on this blog of mine: https://gloriapoole.blogspot.com and also see the links on it.

You can see the site of mine as web M'aam [technical] instead of webmaster that I began years ago when I owned domains on the web; but it is a simple site now because all my domains were stolen FROM me via fraud and identity theft after criminals tried to kill me with a vehicle in June 2011. The site is important:



This is my 2016 logo for the time being. I signed it in paint and painted in that little brush. Copyrighted.

My copyright notice I made for this blog and all content on it. Read statement below.

This is one of my Christian crosses to remind all that I am raised Southern Baptist and am believer in THE LIVING LORD JESUS.That is my hand in that photo that I photographed in recent months this year. To read what I believe please read https://salvation-is-free.blogspot.com.

This is the symbol of my alma mater Georgia Baptist College of Nursing where I graduated; and took state boards in Georgia to become a Registered Nurse years ago.I have a Registered Nurse license in Missouri.

This is the display I made of the University of Georgia's Terry College of Business where I got a second education and graduated with a business degree.

This is my selfie [Gloria Poole,RN, artist] in spring 2014 but I look the same except that I am thinner and my hair is longer but I still put it in lop-sided pony tail when I walk about or create art to prevent hair from blowing into my eyes or into paint.That is also me that you see in the "about me" box on right side of this blog and I am wearing a dark grey winter wool hat because that photo was taken of me in state of Georgia in Jan 2010 and my family in Georgia saw me wearing that hat and so did other people. So I am leaving that photo also on this blog for that reason.

This is one of my photos of the U S flag I photographed on walkabout to remind all I am a U S citizen with all civil liberties including freedom of Press, freedom to worship THE LORD GOD, and freedom to associate with whomever I want or not to associate with those GOD labels "abomination" and freedom to protest governments.

Copyright notice: I, Gloria Poole, own all rights to all content on this blog. Usually I sign the art I create as simply Gloria since that is my first name, that I was born with; but on pencil and or ink drawings I sometimes also sign my born with surname of Poole which is my legal name again because I removed the Pappas name from my name at time of final divorce decree in Oct 2007 from male DBP, and I resumed my full maiden name, Gloria Poole by Court order at the same time. I am also known on the web and in real life as Gloria; Gloria Poole; Gloria J Poole; Gloria Poole, RN, artist; and on the web as : gloriapoole; gloria-poole; gloria.poole; Ms Gloria Poole; gloriapoole.RN; gloriapoole_RN; gloriapooleRN at yahoo; gloria0817; gpoole817; artist-gloriapoole; gloriapoole-paintings; artist-gloria; Poole,Gloria; gloriapoole1749; and other variations of my real, born with, and legal name of Gloria Poole. For the record, I am a white, single-again, twice divorced, Southern Baptist, born again, Christian, woman and the mother of only two children who are grown daughters who are named Jennifer and Leigh. I am also a prolife activist, blogger, artist in all mediums; photographer for my own purposes, Registered Nurse with a license in Missouri but before that for most of my life in the state of Georgia, U.S. citizen born in the state of Georgia; University of Georgia alum, Georgia Baptist College of Nursing alum, writer, illustrator, author, personhood promoter. This blog may not be downloaded, nor copied individually or collectively as a whole; nor have domains forwarded to it that do not belong to me, nor may the photos or art on it be reproduced or saved to disk by anyone .

I create all content on this blog and I, Gloria Poole, own all rights to this blog collectively and individually as single posts. All telephones listed on this account and any account of mine on the web belong to me personally and are in my apartment in Missouri or in my possession at all times. Some of my numbers are wired, landline telephones and some are mobile phones. I have other telephones and numbers that are not listed on this blog for my safety sake. This blog and all blogs that I create and that contain my words I wrote and or art I made and signed and or photos that I photographed belong exclusively to me Gloria Poole, of Missouri and Georgia. Copyright. Gloria Poole / Gloria / gloriapoole /gloria-poole /gloria.poole/ Ms Gloria Poole/ Poole Gloria / G-L-O-R-I-A / gloriapoole1749 /gloria0817 /gpoole817 / gloriapooleRN at yahoo / gloriapoole.RN / artist-gloriapoole /Gloria Poole,RN,artist /cartooning-by-gloriapoole / photo-by-gloriapoole, and other variations of my real name with or without my professional status as Registered Nurse and with or without numbers after my name, at my own private apt in Missouri which is not shared with anyone and neither is my equipment nor phones shared with anyone, and neither is my isp account shared with anyone which means no one is authorized to log into any account of mine anywhere but me. /signed/ Gloria Poole, RN, artist; at my apt in Missouri on 16th May 2016 at 10:57am. I, gloriapoole/ Gloria Poole, RN, artist, updated some things about this account on 2nd August 2016 at 9:14am.

Gloria Poole / Gloria / gloriapoole / [Ms ] Gloria Poole,RN,artist of / gloria Poole,RN, artist of/in Missouri, USA .

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