Saturday, June 18, 2016

About viruses and how they affect humans, written by me Gloria Poole,RN,artist of Missouri

This lesson is about the differences in viruses and bacterial infections. I am prompted to write this because there is much in the medical news about the proper use of antibiotics. Antibiotics are for bacterial infections and do not end viruses. However, a bacterial infection can sometimes be super-imposed over a virus and so in those cases antibiotics would resolve the bacterial infection and the virus would wear it self out or cause death. I try to write these "lessons" for the public that may or may not know any medical jargon or terminology. I am referring to a medical textbook that belongs to me. However, there are other classifications of agents that cause disease in humans and those are: protozoa, fungi, ricketttsiae. This is a brief summary only since to discuss each of these would take entire chapters of books. Basically I want people to understand that human diseases are caused by different agents and that the agents are classified by characteristics, the incubation period, how they reproduce, what symptoms and changes they cause in humans, how they are treated and how they resolve, and that there are diagnostic tests to determine them. I included the list of the known viruses with comments on some, so please make sure you read that.

also, thanks to my readers/ viewers in US, France and Russia. If you want to see the complete list of the countries where I have readers/ viewers of other blogs of mine see my


A. Viruses can be visualized by powerful microscopes. The swab is smeared on a little glass rectangle and studied under the microscope. There are other tests for them also. Multiplication of viruses occurs under suitable conditions in the presence of living cells. but if there are no living cells present, the virus cannot multiply. In other words, the virus needs the human cells to multiply. The smallest viruses are from 10-28 microunits and the largest are from 225-400 microunits. Some viruses require an acidic pH to infect a person. Viruses in humans present [to Emergency rooms] with diverse clinical manifestations depending upon what part of the body they are attacking.The primary pathological phenomena common to all viruses are hyperplasia, hyperplasia accompanied by necrosis, and necrosis of the cell. Some viruses cause exudate. Some viruses cause an immunity to them after the disease resolves, but not all viruses do. Some viruses respond favorably to chemotherapy. Some viruses can be treated with medicines such as anti-histamines that relieve the symptoms but do not cure them. In those specific cases of a virus that has a bacterial infection super-imposed over it, thus complicating the healing of the person, antibiotics can be used. Also, for persons who at at high risk of developing bacterial infections because of other factors such as diabetes, or immuno-suppression either by the person's own body or by drugs, and cancer patients and other specific diseases known to affect the immune system. Some viruses can be treated effectively with anti-viral medicines.

"Bacteria and viruses are equally associated with the risk of acute episodes of asthma-like symptoms in young children, suggesting antibiotics as a potential treatment for such episodes."

B. Physical principles of viruses:

"Viruses are unique among living organisms insofar as they can be reconstituted "from scratch", that is, synthesized from purified components. In the simplest cases, their "parts list" numbers only two: a single molecule of nucleic acid and many (but a very special number, i.e., multiples of 60) copies of a single protein. Indeed, the smallest viral genomes include essentially only two genes, on the order of a thousand times fewer than the next-simplest organisms like bacteria and yeast."

C. How the body's immune system fights viruses;

"The innate immune system provides protection against invading neurotropic viruses. It acts as the first line of defense against invading viruses and plays an elementary role in their pathogenesis. The list of viruses capable of infecting human central nervous system (CNS) is quite long, most important of them are Japanese Encephalitis virus (JEV), rabies virus, West Nile virus (WNV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), La Crosse virus, tick borne encephalitis virus (TEBE) and polio virus. Germ line pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide binding oligomerization domain (NOD) - like receptors (NLRs), retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) -like helicases or RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) and cytosolic DNA sensors recognize the pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and initiate an immune response against invading pathogen. "Reference

D. The known viruses that affect humans are :

Acute Measles Encephalitis

Acute Respiratory Disease [ARD]

Arboviruses [Dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, and yellow fever virus]

Aseptic menigitis


avian paramyxoviruses in wild birds

blood transfusion viruses ["novel human virus, human hepegivirus 1 (HHpgV-1), that shares features with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human pegivirus (HPgV; formerly called GB virus C or hepatitis G virus). HCV and HPgV belong to the genera Hepacivirus and Pegivirus of the family Flaviviridae". Reference

Calciviridae family of viruses [Norovirus, Sapovirus , Astrovirus, Rotavirus , Adenovirus, Recovirus ]


Choriomenigitis, lympocytic

Colorado tick fever

common cold

Coronaviridae, includes coronavirus 3CL (pro)

Coxsackie, with 24 distinct viruses in this group ; occur in summer months and resemble the poliomyelitis viruses ]


Eastern Equine Encephalitis

Ebola (EBOV)

ECHO [Enteric cytopathogenic human orphans] ; has several strains

Encephalitis, St Louis [SLEV]

F-specific RNA bacteriophages in run-off water [under study]

Filoviridae family of viruses

Flaviviridae including Pegivirus

Foot and mouth disease [FMD]
foot-and-mouth disease type O virus; belongs to the Middle East-South Asia topotype.

Guillain-Barre syndrome

H9N2 wild bird influenza; Asian flu

hepatitis B virus

hepatitis C virus (HCV)

Herpes simplex [HSV]

Herpes Zoster

human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8)

human hepegivirus 1 (HHpgV-1)

Human immunodeficiency virus 1 [HIV-1 ]

human pegivirus (HPgV; formerly called GB virus C or hepatitis G virus)

Influenza [including H7N1, H5N3, H3N2 ]

Japanese Encephalitis virus (JEV)

John Cunningham Polyoma virus which originates in the kidney

Klassevirus [enterovirus]

La Crosse virus

Lyme disease can co-exist with viruses. ["Lyme disease in North America is caused by infection with the spirochetal bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted by Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus ticks. These ticks also have the potential to transmit a rapidly expanding list of other pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and parasites, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, deer tick (Powassan) virus, Borrelia miyamotoi, and the Ehrlichia muris-like organism. Coinfections with B burgdorferi and these other agents are often difficult to diagnose and may go untreated, and thus contribute significantly to patient morbidity and mortality from tick-borne infections." Reference :



Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)




MW polyomavirus [enterovirus]

MX polyomavirus; [enterovirus]

Newcastle disease virus

oncolytic vaccinia

oncolytic paramyxoviruses, [which kill a broad spectrum of human malignant cells, thus are 'good " viruses. "The list of oncolytic paramyxovirus representatives includes attenuated measles virus (MV), mumps virus (MuV), low pathogenic Newcastle disease (NDV), and Sendai (SeV) viruses" . Refer to]

Parvoviridae [includes Bufavirus, Tusavirus]

Picornaviridae [enteroviruses ;includes foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is dependent on the virus-encoded 3C protease (3C(pro)]

Picobirnaviridae [enteroviruses affecting gastro-intestinal tract]

pneumonia [but pneumonia can also be bacterial]



Psittacosis-lymphogranuloma group





Saffold [enterovirus]

Salivirus [entervirus]

Schmallenberg virus [SBV] ; European, in semen]

Sendai virus

severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)


STL polyomavirus [enterovirus]

Swine flu {Pork semen as a vector for transmission of viral pathogens. "
Different viruses have been detected in porcine semen. Some of them are on the list of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and consequently, these pathogens are of socioeconomic and/or public health importance and are of major importance in the international trade of animals and animal product]

Tacaribe arenavirus

tick borne encephalitis virus (TEBE)

Turlock Viruses


vertebrate viruses (VirCapSeq-VERT)

Viral miRNAs,[ " in particular, have been under extensive investigation since their initial identification over ten years ago. High-throughput studies to capture miRNA targets have revealed a number of miRNA-regulated viral and cellular transcripts that tie into important biological networks. Functions for many EBV ncRNAs are still unknown; however, roles for many EBV miRNAs in latency and in tumorigenesis have begun to emerge. Ongoing mechanistic studies to elucidate the functions of EBV ncRNAs should unravel additional roles for ncRNAs in the viral life cycle."

West Nile virus (WNV)
Yellow Fever

Zika [Africa, Asia, Brazil ;widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Brazil.]

I made this list of viruses as comprehensive as I could but research is on-going and the list seems to grow by the day.

E. Viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, and yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil and neighboring countries.

F. Viruses transmitted by birds and geese : " Exposure to all four arboviruses was detected in Canada geese, double-crested cormorants, mallards, mute swans, laughing gulls, and American coots. Our results suggest that exposure to arboviruses is widespread in the United States across a diversity of wild bird species."

I also used the NIH's Pubmed :

And also : with quote : "In 1907 the first tissue culture system was developed which was regarded as the golden standard for virus detection for a long time, reviewed in the literature [40]. In the 1930’s serology and electron microscopy were introduced which boosted the discovery of new viruses. During these years, these methods developed fruitfully but viruses infecting the gastrointestinal tract were especially difficult to culture. Throughout the last several decades, several DNA-based techniques have been developed for virus discovery that boosted the identification of novel viruses in stool samples."..."Koch recognized as early as 1891 that associating the presence of a certain agent with a certain disease is complex, and he therefore postulated guidelines that should be followed before an agent can be classified as a pathogen [88]. His postulates can be summarized in three points: (1) The microbe occurs in every case of the disease in question and under circumstances which can account for the pathological changes and clinical course of the disease; (2) the microbe occurs in no other disease as a fortuitous and nonpathogenic parasite; and (3), after being fully isolated from the body and repeatedly grown in pure culture, the microbe can induce the disease anew. If a microbe has fulfilled these three postulates it can be stated that “the occurrence of the microbe in the disease can no longer be accidental, but in this case no other relation between it and the disease except that the microbe is the cause of the disease can be considered”. For enteric viruses, however, these postulates are not applicable. Firstly, the enteric viruses are not easily cultured [89,90,91], and, secondly, prolonged sheading of viral agents and asymptomatic infection have been described [92], reviewed in the literature."

The following paragraph explains some of the debate of if it is possible to adequately sterilize gastrointestinal scopes :

"In the last decade, two novel clades of astroviruses have been discovered in stool samples from patients with diarrhea that are genetically far distinct from the classical astroviruses. The first clade consists of the VA-1, VA-2, VA-3, VA-4, and VA-5 astroviruses, which are genetically related to feline and porcine astroviruses, while the second clade consists of the MLB1, MLB2 and MLB3 astroviruses and form a separate cluster [55,57,74,75,76,77,78]. For these novel clades the pathogenesis remains to be determined since the viruses have been identified in patients with and without diarrhea, and in some studies the viruses were associated with diarrhea whilst in others no association could be found [55,56,57]. In addition an antibody response was observed against some but not all novel astrovirus types [54,58]. Recently, astrovirus MLB2 has also been detected in blood plasma of a febrile child [79] and astrovirus VA1 in a frontal cortex biopsy specimen from a patient with encephalitis [80], suggesting that astrovirus infection may not be limited to the gastrointestinal tract."...In conclusion, the long list of viruses identified in the gastrointestinal tract is most probably not final yet. It is to be expected that several novel viruses will be described in the near future, since detection of these agents using the current next-generation sequence technologies is no longer a difficulty. Therefore, adding relevance to the discovery of novel viruses should be the main goal for future studies."

"The Human Pan-Microbe Communities (HPMC) database ( provides a manually curated, searchable, metagenomic resource to facilitate investigation of human gastrointestinal microbiota".

Also, sterilization of enteroscopes involves eradicating carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) which is bacterial. Reference:

G. About vaccines and preventative measures:

"There are many globally prevalent viruses for which there are no licensed vaccines or antiviral medicines. Some of these viruses, such as Ebola virus or members of the arenavirus family, rapidly cause severe hemorrhagic diseases that can be fatal. Other viruses, such as hepatitis B virus or human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), establish persistent infections that cause chronic illnesses, including cancer. Thus, finding an affordable, effective, and safe drug that blocks many viruses remains an unmet medical need. The antiviral drug arbidol (ARB), already in clinical use in several countries as an anti-influenza treatment, has been previously shown to suppress the growth of many viruses. In this report, we expand the list of viruses that are blocked by ARB in a laboratory setting to include Ebola virus, Tacaribe arenavirus, and HHV-8, and we propose ARB as a broad-spectrum antiviral drug that may be useful against hemorrhagic viruses."

H. Methods of inactivating viruses that are constantly evolving are:

anti-viral medicines,

Antiretroviral Therapy [ART] ,


"virus inactivation using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and titanium dioxide photocatalysis, and physical removal via enhanced coagulation using ferric chloride." []

Testing certain foods, such as cranberries and soy to see how they affect viruses. "Anti-viral properties of both cranberry juice-enriched and cranberry pomace polyphenol-enriched soy protein isolate (CB-SPI and CBP-SPI) were tested against influenza viruses (H7N1, H5N3, H3N2), Newcastle disease virus and Sendai virus in vitro and in ovo. "

Because this is so long, I will have to discuss bacterial infections at a later time.

Also, thank you very much to my readers and viewers from around the world. You can see the complete list of countries that view or read various blogs of mine on my

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This is one of my Christian crosses to remind all that I am raised Southern Baptist and am believer in THE LIVING LORD JESUS.That is my hand in that photo that I photographed in recent months this year. To read what I believe please read

This is the symbol of my alma mater Georgia Baptist College of Nursing where I graduated; and took state boards in Georgia to become a Registered Nurse years ago.I have a Registered Nurse license in Missouri.

This is the display I made of the University of Georgia's Terry College of Business where I got a second education and graduated with a business degree.

This is my selfie [Gloria Poole,RN, artist] in spring 2014 but I look the same except that I am thinner and my hair is longer but I still put it in lop-sided pony tail when I walk about or create art to prevent hair from blowing into my eyes or into paint.That is also me that you see in the "about me" box on right side of this blog and I am wearing a dark grey winter wool hat because that photo was taken of me in state of Georgia in Jan 2010 and my family in Georgia saw me wearing that hat and so did other people. So I am leaving that photo also on this blog for that reason.

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Copyright notice:I, Gloria Poole, own all rights to all content on this blog. Usually I sign the art I create as simply Gloria since that is my first name, that I was born with; but on pencil and or ink drawings I sometimes also sign my born with surname of Poole which is my legal name again because I removed the Pappas name from my name at time of final divorce decree in Oct 2007 from male DBP, and I resumed my full maiden name, INCLUDING MY BORN WITH SURNAME OF POOLE by Court order at the same time. I am also known on the web and in real life as Gloria; Gloria Poole; Gloria J Poole; Gloria Poole, RN, artist; and on the web as : gloriapoole; gloria-poole; gloria.poole; Ms Gloria Poole; gloriapoole.RN; gloriapoole_RN; gloriapooleRN at yahoo; gloria0817; gpoole817; artist-gloriapoole; gloriapoole-paintings; artist-gloria; Poole,Gloria; gloriapoole1749; and other variations of my real, born with, and legal name of Gloria Poole. For the record, I am a white, single-again, twice divorced, Southern Baptist, born again, Christian, woman and the mother of only two children who are grown daughters who are named Jennifer and Leigh. I am also a prolife activist, blogger, artist in all mediums; photographer for my own purposes, Registered Nurse with a license in Missouri but before that for most of my life in the state of Georgia, U.S. citizen born in the state of Georgia; University of Georgia alum, Georgia Baptist College of Nursing alum, writer, illustrator, author, personhood promoter. This blog may not be downloaded, nor copied individually or collectively as a whole; nor have domains forwarded to it that do not belong to me, nor may the photos or art on it be reproduced or saved to disk by anyone .

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